Does antibiotic treatment duration matter for hospitalized patients with Gram-negative bacteremia?

A study published in Clinical Infectious Diseases examined the duration of antibiotic treatment for hospitalized patients with Gram-negative bacteremia.

Researchers conducted a randomized, multicenter, non-inferiority trial involving patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. They included 604 patients from three centers in Israel and Italy, of which 306 received seven days of antibiotic therapy and 298 received 14 days of antibiotic therapy. They set the non-inferiority margin at 10 percent. The study was conducted between January 2013 and August 2017.

The primary outcome at 90 days was a composite of all-cause mortality; relapse, suppurative or distant complications; and re-admission or extended hospitalization less than 14 days.

The primary outcome occurred in 45.8 percent of patients in the seven-day group and in 28.3 percent of patients in the 14-day group. Researchers observed no significant differences in all other outcomes and adverse events.

"Reducing antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated Gram-negative bacteremia to seven days is an important antibiotic stewardship intervention," study authors concluded.

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